can cause considerable detrimental effects on fertility such as diminished egg quality and sperm quality, increased risk for miscarriage and several pregnancy related complications. Tobacco use is not advisable if you are pregnant or trying to become pregnant. ASRM Smoking and Fertility


and its effect on fertility are not well defined. It is well-documented that high consumption of alcohol can cause fetal defects such as small head size, low birth weight, facial malformations, developmental delays, and conditions such as Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). Currently, there has been no "safe" limit of alcohol established, so the general recommendation is to avoid its use in pregnancy.


in high quantities can affect fertility. Studies have also shown that high quantities of caffeine can be associated with miscarriage. Generally, 1-2 cups (8oz each) of brewed coffee is considered permissible. Tea and soda typically have less caffeine than coffee.


and other recreational drugs may have an impact on fertility as they can affect egg quality and sperm quality. Illicit drug use can also pose harmful effects to the developing fetus. It is recommended to avoid the use of illicit drugs before and during a pregnancy. Misuse of prescription narcotics can have similar effects.
THC and pregnancy
THC preconceptually

Prescriptions for chronic medical conditions

should be discussed with your prescribing provider prior to pregnancy. Certain medications may have risks associated with pregnancy and/or birth defects. Some medications may need dosage adjustments or conversion to alternatives prior to or during pregnancy.

Dietary supplements

  • Prenatal vitamin: The general recommendation is to take a prenatal vitamin daily both before and during pregnancy, as it is difficult to determine if patients are meeting their recommended vitamin and mineral allowances with basic dietary practices.
  • Folic acid: This is an important B vitamin. 400-800 mcg daily is the general recommendation in addition to your daily dietary intake of folic acid. In women with a known history or family history of a neural tube defect (ie. spina bifida, anencephaly), it is recommended to take at least 4 mg daily. There are other medical conditions such diabetes and seizure disorders that may require higher dose folic acid as well.
  • Vitamin D: Deficiency of this vitamin may be associated with certain adverse outcomes in pregnancy. Routine screening is generally not recommended. It is thought that the amount of vitamin D in a prenatal vitamin should be sufficient for most, but higher doses may be recommended if a deficiency is proven or suspected.
  • Calcium: should be consumed through diet or with vitamin supplementation in the amount of 1000 mg daily.